Nov 142016
 

HP/Compaq nx6310/nc6320 logoA good while back, I got a free notebook from [The_Plague]German flag, a HP/Compaq nx6310[1][2] which he kinda pulled out of the trash at his company. It’s not exactly “Thinkpad T23” material, but it’s a pretty solid, well-built machine with a good keyboard. I’ve been using the thing as an operating system testbed for a while (Linux, ReactOS, Haiku OS, OpenBSD, Dragonfly BSD, and finally: FreeBSD UNIX). After settling for FreeBSD the machine clearly showed its limitations though, the most problematic being imposed by the very low-end i940GML chipset. That one has limited the machine to a single processor core and a 533MHz data rate FSB.

I did give the machine a Core Duo T2450, but switching dual core on in the BIOS results in a lockup at POST time. Also, the chipset cannot use dual-channel DDR-II and limits the user to 2GiB of memory, making the use of a 64-bit processor rather pointless. Which turned out to be bad, because some code doesn’t even provide full functionality for 32-bit anymore, like x265, which dropped deep color support on 32-bit architectures.

But now, The_Plague pulled another one out of the trash, it’s basically the exact same machine, but a higher-end model, the nc6320. This one has an i945GM chipset, which means dual core support, FSB667 and 4GiB dual-channel RAM capability! It came with a Core 2 Duo T5600 @ 1.83GHz with 2MiB L2 cache. I ordered the largest possible chip for this box from ebay Hong Kong, so now it has a Core 2 Duo T7600 @ 2.33GHz with 4MiB L2 cache. Also, 2×2=4GiB of DDR-II/667 CL4 are on their way already, together with a 12-cell secondary monster battery!

And of course, FreeBSD UNIX again, in its brand new version 11.0-RELEASE:

HP/Compaq nc6320 running FreeBSD 11.0 UNIX

HP/Compaq nc6320 running FreeBSD 11.0 UNIX (click to enlarge)

The CPU upgrade is actually even noticeable when browsing the web, lots of resource-hungry Javascript and CSS3, you know. Luckily, Chromium supports hardware acceleration on the Intel GMA950 GPU on FreeBSD, as the OS comes with a kernel modesetting compliant driver for almost all integrated Intel graphics chips. It’s too slow to do the rasterization stage on the GPU, but it still helps.

Once again, it shall serve mostly as a meeting and sysadmin machine, with a little bit of private-use-fun added on top. Let’s have a look at the software! Oh and by the way, I decided to make the screenshots 8-bit .png images, so some of them will look a bit bad. But still better+smaller than JPEG for that purpose:

Running screenfetch on the nc6320

Running screenfetch on the nc6320 (click to enlarge)

$ screenfetch is showing us some details about the machine, which also makes it clear that everything is “Tokisaki Kurumi”-themed. Since there’s a lot of red color on that girls’ garments it seems at least somewhat fitting for a FreeBSD machine.

Chromium with FVD Speed Dial

Chromium with FVD Speed Dial (click to enlarge)

I’m a [Vivaldi] fan personally, but that browser isn’t available on any BSD yet, so I installed a few extensions to make Chromium work somewhat like Vivaldi; The most important part being the static FVD speed dial you can see above. What you can’t see here are the other extensions that followed it: AdBlockPlus and Ghostery. I hear there are better/faster solutions than ABP for ad blocking these days however, so maybe I’ll revise that.

IBM Lotus Notes via wine 1.8

IBM Lotus Notes 6.5.1 via 32-bit wine 1.8.4 (click to enlarge)

Also, for work I would sometimes need IBM Lotus Notes, as it’s our Universities’ groupware solution (think of that what you will). While I couldn’t get the Linux version to run, our Domino servers still accept connections from older clients, so it’s Lotus Notes 6.5.1 running under a 32-bit [wine], which is a solution IBM officially recommended for running the software on Linux/UNIX a few years ago. And yeah, it still works. And if you have Windows software wine can’t cope with?

XP x64 via VirtualBox on FreeBSD

XP x64 via VirtualBox on FreeBSD (click to enlarge)

For anything that wine can’t handle, the VirtualBox port kicks in, as we can see here. Together with the CPUs VT-x extension and the guest tools, virtualizing Windows on FreeBSD UNIX works relatively well. Not all features are there (like USB passthrough), but it works ok for me. Will need a Windows 7 VM as well I think.

More stuff:

Communicating on FreeBSD

Communicating on FreeBSD (parts are censored, click to enlarge)

One important part is communication! Luckily, there is a version of licq in the ports tree now. It builds well together with its Qt4 UI, so no complaints there. Hexchat for IRC access is also available, but the tricky part was Skype; Not that I really need it, but I wanted to have the linuxulator up and running as well! For those of you who don’t know what the “linuxulator” is: It’s a series of kernel modules that extend FreeBSDs kernel with parts of the Linux kernel interface. On top of that, you can pull parts of Fedora 10 or CentOS 6.8 or some CentOS 7 Linux userspace components from the package servers. Together with the kernel modules those form a kind of runtime environment for executing Linux programs – Skype 4.3 in this case! So I have both wine and linuxulator ready for action, and with it access to ICQ, Jabber, MSN, IRC and Skype. Now, what about multimedia?

Multimedia on FreeBSD

smplayer and xmms on FreeBSD, unfortunately the 8-bit color is a bit too noticeable for this screenshot, my apologies (click to enlarge)

This is a part where the upgraded processor also helps. Here we can see (s)mplayer play the last episode of the Anime Hanayamata in taxing 2.5Mbit H.265/HEVC encoding, paired with AAC-LC audio. The Core 2 Duo T5600 had some issues with this, but the faster T7600 shows now problems. Additionally, xmms is playing a Commodore 64 SID tune using libsidplay2 and the reSID engine. xmms comes with a lot of funny plugins from the FreeBSD ports tree for Gameboy tunes or NES tunes, but the C64 one you need to compile for yourself. Not too hard though, you can fetch libsidplay2 and reSID from packages beforehand to make things easier! What else?

ioquake3

ioquake3, a cleaned up version of the Quake III Arena source code, here in its 64-bit FreeBSD build (click to enlarge)

A pretty fun part: Playing the native Quake3 port [ioquake3] in 64-bit, for whenever you just need to shoot something to blow off some steam. ;) I have to say, I had to tweak it quite a bit to run fluently on the WVA 1400×1050 display of this book given the weak GMA950 GPU, but it runs “rather ok” now. ioquake3 is also available for Windows, OSX and Linux by the way, including a more advanced OpenGL 2 renderer, which gives users access to some advanced graphical effects. And if I get bored by that…

HakuNeko Manga ripper and qComicbook

HakuNeko Manga ripper and qComicbook showing some sweet girls love! (click to enlarge)

Once again, fixing up HakuNekos’ build system and C++ code to work with FreeBSD properly took some time. Unfortunately there is no port for it yet (and I’m too stupid/lazy to create one), so you have to fix it by hand. Lots of replacing sed invocations with gsed, find with gfind etc. and the OS #ifdef parts, which need to be changed in several .cpp files, here’s an example from MangaConnector.cpp:

  1. #ifdef __LINUX__
  2. wxString MCEntry::invalidFileCharacters = wxT("/\r\n\t");
  3. endif

Something like that needs to turn into this to compile on FreeBSD, otherwise you’ll end up with a HakuNeko that can’t do shit (it’ll still compile and run, but like I said, it’d be devoid of function):

  1. #if defined __LINUX__ || __FreeBSD__
  2. wxString MCEntry::invalidFileCharacters = wxT("/\r\n\t");
  3. endif

This is true for the latest version 1.4.1 as well. I guess the modifications should also apply to other operating systems by adding things like __OpenBSD__ or similar.

Now all that’s left is to wait for that massive 12C battery, the RAM capacity+speed upgrade and some FreeBSD case sticker that I ordered from [unixstickers.com] (hint: That’s a referral URL, it’s supposed to give you some $5 coupon upon ordering, I hope it works). Upon my order, a small part was donated to the LLVM project – very fitting, given that I’ve used clang/llvm a lot to compile stuff on FreeBSD as of late. :)

FreeBSD case sticker (preview)

This is what it’s supposed to look like, and it’s going to replace the current Windows XP+Vista sticker

I hope it’ll look as good in real life! :) Ah, I think I’m gonna have a lot of fun with that old piece of junk. ;)

Ah, and thanks fly out to The_Plague, who saved this laptop from the trash bin and gave it to me for free! Prost!

Edit: And the memory is here, two G.Skill “performance” modules doing 4-4-4 latencies at 667MHz data rate, replacing a single Samsung module running 5-5-5. Now I was interested in how much going from single channel CL5 to dual channel CL4 would really affect performance. Let’s just say, it didn’t do too much for CPU processes. However, the effect on the integrated GMA950 GPU (using shared system memory!) was amazing. It seems the graphics chip was held back a lot by the memory interface! Let’s have a quick look at Quake III Arena performance using a quickly recorded demo just for this purpose (ioquake3 can’t play old Quake III Arena demos like the “001” demo):

  • ioquake3 1.36, single channel DDR-II/667 CL5:
  • 30.6fps
  • ioquake3 1.36, dual channel DDR-II/667 CL4:
  • 41.2fps

Roughly +35%!!

Tests were run three times, then three more times after a reboot. After that, an average was taken. For ioquake3 this wouldn’t even have been necessary though, as the results were extremely consistent. It’s amazing how much the added memory speed really affects the game engine! I rebooted and re-ran the tests several times because I couldn’t believe in that massive boost in performance, but it’s actually true and fully reproducible! This reminds me of how well modern AMD APU graphics chips scale with main memory speed and it explains why people were asking for quad-channel DDR4 on those Kaveri APU chips. Its built-in Radeons would’ve probably loved the added bandwidth!

I also kinda felt that browsing web sites got a lot more smooth using Chromium with most of its GPU acceleration turned on. So I tried the graphics-centric browser test [Motionmark] to put that to the test. Parts of the results were inconclusive, but let’s have a look first:

  • Motionmark 1.0 (medium screen profile), single channel DDR-II/667 CL5:
  • Overall result: 13.85 ±22.24%
  • Multiply: 119.26 ±2.95%
  • Canvas Arcs: 19.04 ±68.48%
  • Leaves: 3.00 ±133.33%
  • Paths: 85.30 ±6.57%
  • Canvas Lines: 1.00 ±0.00%
  • Focus: 1.76 ±5.22%
  • Images: 40.58 ±2.56%
  • Design: 18.89 ±8.00%
  • Suits: 24.00 ±37.50%
  • Motionmark 1.0 (medium screen profile), dual channel DDR-II/667 CL4:
  • Overall result: 22.47 ±15.93%
  • Multiply: 124.55 ±1.60%
  • Canvas Arcs: 26.00 ±138.46%
  • Leaves: 65.90 ±16.93%
  • Paths: 37.00 ±16.89%
  • Canvas Lines: 1.00 ±0.00%
  • Focus: 2.00 ±50.00%
  • Images: 41.58 ±3.59%
  • Design: 24.49 ±2.35%
  • Suits: 90.65 ±13.55%

Now first things first: This was just my first pick for any kind of graphics-heavy browser benchmark. I thought I needed something that would make the browser do a lot of stuff on the GPU, given that hardware acceleration was almost fully enabled on FreeBSD UNIX + Chromium + GMA950. However, after repeated runs it showed that the variance was just far too high on the following tests: Leaves, Paths, Suits. Those would also mess up the overall score. The ones that showed consistent performance were: Multiply, Canvas Arcs, Canvas Lines, Focus, Images, Design, so we should focus on those. Well, not all of those tests show promising results (Multiply, Canvas Lines), but some clearly do. It seems my feeling that parts of CSS3 etc. had gotten faster after the memory upgrade was spot-on!

Not bad, not bad at all! And tomorrow morning, the [x264 benchmark] will also have finished, showing how much a classic CPU-heavy task would profit from that upgrade (probably not much, but we’ll see tomorrow).

Edit 2: And here is the rest. Like I thought, the memory upgrade had only minimal impact on CPU performance:

  • x264 benchmark, single channel DDR-II/667 CL5:
  • Runtime: 04:40:08.621
  • x264 benchmark, dual channel DDR-II/667 CL4:
  • Runtime: 04:38:23.851

So yeah it’s faster. But only by a meager +0.62%. Completely negligible. But it’s still a good upgrade given the GPU performance boost and the fact that I can now use more memory for virtual machines. :)

Ah, and here’s the 12-cell ultra capacity battery, which gives me a total of 18 cells in conjunction with the 6-cell primary battery:

Nice hardware actually, you can check it’s charge (roughly) with a button and a 4-LED display, and it has it’s own charging plug. What surprised me most though was this:

$ hwstat | grep -i -e "serial number" -i -e battery
[ACPI Battery (sysctl)]
[battery0]
        Serial number:                  00411 2006/10/12
[battery1]
        Serial number:                  00001 2016/07/29

That probably explains how a still sealed battery could come with a ~25% pre-charge. Manufactured in July 2016, wow. And that for a notebook that’s 10 years old? Ok, it’s an aftermarket battery by [GRS], but that’s just damn fine still! With that I’ll surely have enough battery runtime to make it through longer meetings as well! :)

Edit 3: And today I used the notebook for a sysadmin task, helping our lead developer in debugging a weird problem in a Java-based student exam submission and evaluation system of ours at work. I suspected that the new CuPPIX (=KNOPPIX derivative) distribution I built for this was to blame, but it turned out to be a faulty Java library handling MySQL database access, hence crashing our server software under high parallel loads. In any case, I had the nc6320 with me during the entire morning up until 12:30 or so, walking away with a total charge of 49% left after the developer had fixed the problem. Not stellar given a total of 18 cells, but definitely good enough for me! :)

Edit 4: And my FreeBSD sticker from unixstickers is finally here! They even gave me a bunch of random free stickers to go with it! I gave those to some colleagues for their kids. ;) And here it is:

FreeBSD sticker from unixstickers.com

There was a Windows Vista/XP sticker before, now it shows some UNIX love! (click to enlarge)

The sticker shows some pretty good quality as well, nice stuff! :)

Mar 152016
 

H.265/HEVC logoJust recently, I’ve tested the computational cost of decoding 10-bit H.265/HEVC on older PCs as well as Android devices – with some external help. See [here]. The result was, that a reasonable Core 2 Quad can do 1080p @ 23.976fps @ 3MBit/s in software without issues, while a Core 2 Duo at 1.6GHz will fail. Also, it has been shown that Android devices – even when using seriously fast quad- and octa-core CPUs can’t do it fluently without a hardware decoder capable of accelerating 10-bit H.265. To my knowledge there is a hack for Tegra K1- and X1-based devices used by MX Player, utilizing the CUDA cores to do the decoding, but all others are being left behind for at least a few more months until Snapdragon 820 comes out.

Today, I’m going to show the results of my tests on Intel Skylake hardware to see whether Intels’ claims are true, for Intel has said that some of their most modern integrated GPUs can indeed accelerate 10-bit video, at least when it comes to the expensive H.265/HEVC. They didn’t claim this for all of their hardware however, so I’d like to look at some lower-end integrated GPUs today, the Intel HD Graphics 520 and the Intel HD Graphics 515. Here are the test systems, both running the latest Windows 10 Pro x64:

  • HP Elitebook 820 G3 (tiny)
  • HP Elitebook 820 G3
  • CPU: Intel [Core i5-6200U]
  • GPU: Intel HD Graphics 520
  • RAM: 8GB DDR4/2133 9-9-9-28-1T
  • Cooling: Active
  • HP Elite X2 1012 G1 (tiny)
  • HP Elite X2 1012 G1 Convertible
  • CPU: Intel [Core m5-6Y54]
  • GPU: Intel HD Graphics 515
  • RAM: 8GB LPDDR3/1866 14-17-17-40-1T
  • Cooling: Passive

Let’s look at the more powerful machine first, which would clearly be the actively cooled Elitebook 820 G3. First, let’s inspect the basic H.265/HEVC capabilities of the GPU with [DXVAChecker]:

DXVAChecker on an Intel HD Graphics 520

DXVAChecker looks good with the latest Intel drivers provided by HP (version 4331): 10-Bit H.264/HEVC is being supported all the way up to 8K!

And this is the ultra-low-voltage CPU housing the graphics core:

Intel Core i5-6200U

Intel Core i5-6200U

So let’s launch the Windows media player of my choice, [MPC-HC], and look at the video decoder options we have:

In any case, both HEVC and UHD decoding have to be enabled manually. On top of that, it seems that either Intels’ proprietary QuickSync can’t handle H.265/HEVC yet, or MPC-HC simply can’t make use of it. The standard Microsoft DXVA2 API however supports it just fine.

Once again, I’m testing with the Anime “Garden of Words” in 1920×1080 at ~23.976fps, but this time with a smaller slice at a higher bitrate of 5Mbit. The encoding options were as follows for pass 1 and pass 2:

--y4m -D 10 --fps 24000/1001 -p veryslow --open-gop --bframes 16 --b-pyramid --bitrate 5000 --rect
--amp --aq-mode 3 --no-sao --qcomp 0.75 --no-strong-intra-smoothing --psy-rd 1.6 --psy-rdoq 5.0
--rdoq-level 1 --tu-inter-depth 4 --tu-intra-depth 4 --ctu 32 --max-tu-size 16 --pass 1
--slow-firstpass --stats v.stats --sar 1 --range full

--y4m -D 10 --fps 24000/1001 -p veryslow --open-gop --bframes 16 --b-pyramid --bitrate 5000 --rect
--amp --aq-mode 3 --no-sao --qcomp 0.75 --no-strong-intra-smoothing --psy-rd 1.6 --psy-rdoq 5.0
--rdoq-level 1 --tu-inter-depth 4 --tu-intra-depth 4 --ctu 32 --max-tu-size 16 --pass 2
--stats v.stats --sar 1 --range full

Let’s look at the performance during some intense scenes with lots of rain at the beginning and some less taxing indoor scenes later:

There is clearly some difference, but it doesn’t appear to be overly dramatic. Let’s do a combined graph, putting the CPU loads for GPU-assisted decoding over the regular one as an overlay:

CPU load with software decoding in blue and DXVA2 GPU-accelerated hardware decoding in red

Blue = software decoding, magenta (cause I messed up with the red color) = GPU-assisted hardware decoding

Well, using DXVA2 does improve the situation here, even if it’s not by too much. It’s just that I would’ve expected a bit more here, but I guess that we’d still need to rely on proprietary APIs like nVidia CUVID or Intel QuickSync to get some really drastic results.

Let’s take a look at the Elite X2 1012 G1 convertible/tablet with its slightly lower CPU and GPU clock rates next:

Its processor:

Core m5-6Y54

Core m5-6Y54

And this is, what DXVAChecker has to say about its integrated GPU:

DXVAChecker on an Intel HD Graphics 515

Whoops… Something important seems to be missing here…

Now what do we have here?! Both HD Graphics 520 and 515 should be [architecturally identical]. Both are GT2 cores with 192 shader cores distributed over 24 clusters, 24 texture mapping units as well as 3 rasterizers. Both support the same QuickSync generation. The only marginal difference seems to be the maximum boost clock of 1.05GHz vs. 1GHz, and yet HD Graphics 515 shows no sign of supporting the Main10 profile for H.264/HEVC (“HEVC_VLD_Main10”), so no GPU-assisted 10-bit decoding! Why? Who knows. At the very least they could just scratch 8K support, and implement it for SD, HD, FHD and UHD 4K resolutions. But nope… Only 8-bit is supported here.

I even tried the latest beta driver version 4380 to see whether anything has changed in the meantime, but no; It behaves in the same way.

Let’s look at what that means for CPU load on the slower platform:

CPU load with software decoding

The small Core m5-6Y54 has to do all the work!

We can see that we get close to hitting the ceiling with the CPUs’ boost clock going up all the way. This is problematic for thermally constrained systems like this one. During a >4 hour [x264 benchmark run], the Elite X2 1012 G1 has shown that its 4.5W CPU can’t hold boost clocks this high for a long time, given the passive cooling solution. Instead, it sat somehwere in between 1.7-2.0GHz, mostly in the 1.8-1.9GHz area. This might still be enough with bigger decoding buffers, but DXVA2 would help a bit here in making this slightly less taxing on the CPU, especially considering higher bitrates or even 4K content. Also, when upping the ambient temperature, the runtime could be pushed back by almost an hour, pushing the CPU clock rate further down by 100-200MHz. So it might just not play that movie on the beach in summer at 36°C. ;)

So, what can we learn from that? If you’re going for an Intel/PC-based tablet, convertible or Ultrabook, you need to pick your Intel CPU+graphics solution wisely, and optimally not without testing it for yourself first! Who knows what other GPUs might be missing certain GPU video decoding features like HD Graphics 515 does. Given that there is no actual compatibility matrix for this as of yet (I have asked Intel to publish one, but they said they can’t promise anything), you need to be extra careful!

For stuff like my 10-bit H.265/HEVC videos at reasonably “low” bitrates, it’s likely ok even with the smallest Core m3-6Y30 + HD Graphics 515 that you can find in devices like Microsofts’ own Surface Pro 4. But considering modern tablets’ WiDi (Wireless Display) tech with UHD/4K resolutions, you might want to be careful when choosing that Windows (or Linux) playback device for your big screens!

Jan 262015
 

FreeBSD battery logo[1] While I’m still using the free HP/Compaq nx6310 notebook a friend has given me, I ran into a little problem during actual productive use with FreeBSD 10.1 UNIX. A problem that also affects more modern HP notebooks like the EliteBook or ProBook series as well as certain Macbooks as I learned only later. The issue lies within the battery status reporting. While the very first state transition will be recognized, as in say you disconnect the AC cable, or the charge drops by 1% or whatever, subsequent changes are completely ignored.

An example: You want to join a meeting with 100% charge. You disconnect the AC cable, an event that is still recognized by the system. The charge may then stand at 99%. It would however not update further, but just stay there until either a reboot or until the lights just go dark. Not good if you intend to actually use the system on the go. The user just needs to be aware of the battery level!

1.) The right direction, but still a fruitless attempt

So I read that HP has quite some share of trouble with Windows-specific and also buggy ACPI BIOS code, and thus, this has been a pain for some time, not just on FreeBSD, but also Linux and in some cases even Windows.

At first I [reported the issue in the FreeBSD forums], after which I was asked to report the problem on the [freebsd-acpi@freebsd.org] mailing list. Problem only was that one can’t post anonymously and the registration never worked for me. So I kept digging in the dirt, and my first attempt was to fix the ACPI code of course, or DSDT as it’s called – the Differentiated System Description Table, written in ASL – the ACPI Source Language. Basically a pretty creepy byte code language providing a bidirectional interface between the operating system and the systems BIOS/UEFI, which in turn controls certain aspects of the hardware. Think display brightness adjustments, WiFi on/off switches, audio volume control via keyboard, sleep buttons etc. – all that is ACPI. You can find the specs [here] if you really want to take a look.

HP compiled the code using [Microsofts ASL compiler], which is known to be rather sloppy and ignore tons of bugs in the code when compiling. So my first step was to dump the active DSDT from the systems memory using acpidump and tell the tool to disassemble it using Intels ASL compiler iasl in the same step:

# acpidump -d > ~/nx6310-stock.asl

Then, I attempted to recompile using the Intel ASL compiler again:

# iasl ~/nx6310-stock.asl

And then came the errors and warnings. Plus some nasty OS-specific code. Since an operating system can and will identify itself to the BIOS via ACPI, one can unfortunately filter by operating system on the BIOS level. Very bad stuff. Like this, taken from the ASL code directly, as written by HP:

expand/collapse source code
  1. Name (C015, Package (0x08)
  2. {
  3.      "Microsoft Windows",
  4.      "Microsoft WindowsME: Millennium Edition",
  5.      "Microsoft Windows NT"
  6. })

…and:

  1. If (LOr (LEqual (C014, 0x00), LEqual (C014, 0x03)))
  2. {
  3.      If (CondRefOf (\_OSI, Local0))
  4.      {
  5.           If (\_OSI ("Windows 2001"))
  6.           {
  7.                Store (0x04, C014)
  8.           }
  9.  
  10.           If (\_OSI ("Windows 2001 SP1"))
  11.           {
  12.                Store (0x04, C014)
  13.           }
  14.  
  15.           If (\_OSI ("Windows 2001 SP2"))
  16.           {
  17.                Store (0x05, C014)
  18.           }
  19.  
  20.           If (\_OSI ("Windows 2006"))
  21.           {
  22.                Store (0x06, C014)
  23.           }
  24.      }
  25. }

Next logical step was to fake the OS FreeBSD was reporting to the ACPI subsystem. You can either do that by changing and embedding the ASL (non-MS OS strings are for instance “FreeBSD” or “Linux”), or luckily also by adding something like the following line to /boot/loader.conf, after which you need to reboot:

hw.acpi.osname="Windows 2006"

That didn’t do the trick for me however, so I tried to run my modified ACPI code after all. To do that you need to recompile the ASL, and then have loader pick it up in the early boot sequence of the kernel. First, I compiled the fixed code:

# iasl -tc ~/nx6310.asl

The result will be /tmp/acpidump.aml (for whatever reason). I placed it in /boot/ and added the following to /boot/loader.conf:

  1. acpi_dsdt_load="YES"
  2. acpi_dsdt_name="/boot/nx6310.aml"

Now another reboot. To verify the AML gets loaded, boot the kernel in verbose mode, you can choose that option in the boot loader. It’ll show something like Preloaded acpi_dsdt "/boot/nx6310.aml" at 0xc18dcc34. in /var/log/messages.

In my case however, while the AML was indeed being loaded, the BIOS’ tables were strangely not overwritten. I never found out why. Dumping them again would just give me the bugged code by HP. So that seemed to be dead end.

2.) The solution

Then I discovered that this might actually be a problem with the FreeBSD kernel itself by stumbling over [problem report 162859] in FreeBSDs bugzilla. It seems there was a problematic commit to the kernels ACPI subsystem written by Jung-uk Kim, initially for FreeBSD 9.0 in 2011: [r216942]. By now, he had provided two patches for it, of which I tried the [newer one] unsuccessfully, making the problem even worse. You can see my replies under my real name “Michael Lackner” in that PR.

Luckily, it was seemingly my complaint on top of the others that made Jung-uk Kim revert the [original patch], all back to how it was in FreeBSD 8.0, which some people reported to work just fine. So I got the now reverted/fixed code from [r277579] – a file named acpi_ec.c, and replaced /usr/src/sys/dev/acpica/acpi_ec.c with it. Then, I recompiled the FreeBSD kernel [as described in the FreeBSD handbook] once more (fear not, it’s actually very easy).

Reboot, and everything just worked! No need for a DSDT replacement or operating system faking even. I tested charge, discharge, AC cable dis-/reconnect and full charge states. All ok now! Finally, that book is now 100% ready for production use! :)

I mean, let’s not make any mistake here, the ACPI code from HP is still buggy. But like the Linux kernel, the FreeBSD kernel knows how to sail around the most severe bugs, including Microsoft-specific code in certain cases, at least now that this issue is fixed.

Thanks fly out to Jung-uk Kim for reverting the problematic patch! It should be merged from current any day now. If you want to get it done faster than that, just fetch acpi_ec.c, place it in the right folder and recompile the kernel and with it all of its modules, just like I did.

[1] Original battery icon used for the logo is © Freepik from Flaticon and is licensed under CC BY 3.0

Dec 032014
 

HP/Compaq nx6310 logoRecently, a friend of mine gave me a free notebook for operating system testing. Well, actually I traded in two DDR-II sticks for it, but that’s still almost free. It’s an older HP/Compaq nx6310 in its low-end configuration with an i940GML chipset, Pentium-M based Celeron M430, a crappy hard drive, 2GB RAM (already upgraded from 512MB) and a DVD±RW burner. The worst part of that laptop was probably the terrible XGA (1024×768) TN+Film LCD panel. The thing came without WiFi too. The antennas were there with properly sealed plugs, but the WiFi module itself was missing in its PCIe mini slot. So I flashed in a nice [hacked Mod BIOS] from [MyDigitalLife] based on the latest Core 2 capable BIOS version F.0E to remove the WiFi card whitelist from the SLIC 2.1 enabled BIOS and plugged in a full-height 4965AGN card from Intel! Then gave it a Crucial m500 SSD which works miracles despite the slow-bandwidth SATA/1.5Gbps interface, and an Intel Core Duo T2450 processor for its Socket M, which is the fastest possible option for this book.

The CPU will only work with a single core on the i940GML chipset/cheapset, and only FSB533 chips will do, as I couldn’t find a way to program the clock generator for the front side bus. Still, given the clock speed of 2GHz and the 2MB L2 cache this is still the best option here, unless you need 64-Bit x86, for which a Core 2 Duo T5300 with 1.73GHz would be available.

If you know which modified BIOS to flash, the WiFi upgrade is very easy, and the CPU upgrade can also be done very quickly and conveniently, which is really nice. But then comes the LCD panel. The ugliest of the ugly in the already pretty ugly field of TN+Film panels with a very coarse grain look and limited space on screen due to the XGA 1024×768 resolution on 15″. An SXGA+ (1400×1050) WVA panel upgrade option identified by the HP part number 413679-001 exists though, which can replace this lower spec one going by the number 413677-001. Just make sure you also get the SXGA+ LVDS cable, as the default LVDS display cable will only work with the XGA screen! Plugging the XGA cable into the SXGA+ panel will yield nothing but an erratic white screen with horizontal lines. I learned that the hard way… Here’s the cables:

nx6310 LVDS display cables, left: SXGA+, right: XGA

nx6310 LVDS display cables, left: SXGA+, right: XGA

So I got the panel and an extra SXGA+ cable from eBay UK, and started with the disassembly, which can be tricky for the first time, as some parts like the display bezel can be prone to breaking. Also, besides a Phillips screwdriver, you will need a size T10 torx screwdriver for this. I would suggest consulting the nx6310s [HP service manual] for display assembly removal. It doesn’t cover everything, only the replacing of an entire display assembly, not the panel in it specifically, but it’s still very helpful. Just don’t disconnect the WiFi antenna cables as they’re asking for, and mind that the switch cover removal sequence is wrong; There is no “LED board cable” to remove for this machine, you can skip that. So let’s assume you followed that manual already for removal of the keyboard and switch cover, and let’s continue from there:

HP nx6310 with keyboard and switch cover removed

HP nx6310 with keyboard and switch cover removed

The copper plate near the middle, just left of the internal memory slot covers the chipset, to the lower left we can see the CPU hotplate from which a heatpipe transfers heat to the cooler/radiator on the top left. All of that is easy to remove and reassemble if you want to replace the processor too. On the display bezel you can already see some screws being visible. All of the screws facing you on the display frame are covered by rubber seals, remove them all. There are also four thin film seals on the sides of the display assembly, two on each side. Get rid of them too.

Now remove all screws on the display assembly and tilt the whole display as far back as possible. Try to stick a flat screwdriver between the two plastic halves (front/back) at the bottom and push the front bezel off the back. Be careful, as the front bezel is especially prone to breaking. The first attempt should be made near the hinges, as it’s easiest and safest there. Then, it might be better not to try and stick the screwdriver in at a 90° angle. Try to do it at a steeper angle, between 20-40°, and push it in a few millimeters deep! Try to lift it up not from the side, but from beneath the bezel frame using leverage. You’ll push against the metal frame of the LCD panel below. There is no electronics there you can damage, so this should be safe. Just work slowly and carefully.

Also, double-check whether you removed all the side screws, or you may break some plastic holders of the front bezel by trying to lift it off with the screws still in place! When you’re at the top side, slide the locking mechanism while pushing the bezel off, or it’ll block you.

Now, with the bezel gone, you’ll see a small white tube on the lower side of the panel. That’s the high-voltage AC inverter board that powers the CCFL lamp for lighting up the display panel. Disconnect both cables attached to it, and just put it away somewhere for now:

The inverter board disconnected

The inverter board disconnected

Also, remove the display cable itself. You can just pull it out, it won’t be too hard, so you can’t really damage the cable. Its beneath the now-removed switch cover, in the area where you’d find the power button:

nx6310 with the old XGA cable still attached

nx6310 with the old XGA cable still attached

After bezel removal, there will be four additional screws that hold the panel frame and the rear cover together, one in each corner of the display assembly, facing you directly. Remove them, and let the rear cover slide away carefully. Don’t use force here, or you may damage the WiFi antennas:

The panel and the rear cover separating

The panel and the rear cover separating

The two cables taped to the rear cover are the WiFi antennas, just leave them alone. Pull the display cable plug out of the LVDS socket carefully, and remove the tapes, then just gently pull the cable out. You may want to remove and save the tapes for later if your SXGA+ doesn’t have its own. Now, there are two frames holding the panel. Tilt the panel so that it stands 90° upright to prevent it from just falling out during the next step. The two frames are screwed to the panel with four small screws on each side. Remove all the screws, then pull out the panel.

Put the new SXGA+ panel in, screw it to the frames, plug in and attach the new LVDS cable and it should look a bit like this:

New panel and cable installed

New panel and cable installed

To make the rear assembly feel stronger to the touch and make the cover less flexible, you might also put some filler material between rear cover and panel, as the new one might be a bit thinner. I used some light foam for that, but you can also just skip that part. Just screw everything back together in reverse order, reconnect the inverter board and push it into its seat in the reattached rear cover below the panel in the middle and don’t forget to attach the new LVDS cable to the system board too:

The new SXGA+ capable LVDS cable attached

The new SXGA+ capable LVDS cable attached

Now, finally: A side-by-side comparison:

Note that the colors look strangely whiteish for the SXGA+ when compared to the XGA. In real life, the white-shift is actually worse for the XGA, no idea why it looks like that on the photograph. Something with the polarization filters on the panels maybe?! Well, frankly, it’s still rather bad with the SXGA+, but not as bad as before. Also, the color space of those two photographs don’t match (again…) because I’m lazy and can’t handle my camera. Oh well. But the new panel is brighter now, which is a nice bonus, and as you can see, there is more space available on the desktop. Since the dpi are now higher, it also looks much more crisp and sharp, and it’s more matte than before, so reflections are reduced and you can work better in bright conditions. Overall, its a sound improvement!

On those pictures you can see FreeBSD 10 UNIX running a terminal emulator window and a Windows XP Pro VirtualBox machine on both panels. All windows were kept at the exact same dimensions, so you can assess the resolution difference properly.

I would also like to add that before learning about the cables, I went on a crazy journey to flash the EDID EEPROM of the panel in an attempt to get it to work, which finally went ok using a hex editor and some [hacked script] for [edid-rw] on Debian 7 Linux, because those panels don’t speak the DDC protocol required by other tools for Windows and DOS. In the end, I managed to write a new vendor string and some other strings to the EDID EEPROM firmware of the panel, which now shows it being manufactured by QDS (QUANTA computer) instead of APP (Apple). Well, just forget about all that. Certain Lenovo Thinkpad upgrade paths might require you to flash the displays’ EDID EEPROM, but this one here doesn’t! It’s all just about the cable.

Now I gotta say, the “free notebook” ain’t so free anymore when it comes to money invested (CPU, WiFi, and LVDS cable were below or around 10€ each, but the SSD was 70€ and the panel 55€ or so), but I’m still quite pleased with my work enhancing the “crappy” book. I’ll also keep FreeBSD for now, I strangely kinda like it after testing a few others natively, like Haiku OS or OpenBSD UNIX 5.6, just for fun. But yeah, with 1400×1050 and an SSD, this is thing feels pretty nice!

I hope this may help somebody other than me, because the EDID flashing suggested by some people leads nowhere for these HP series, and many sellers on ebay just sell you the panel for already SXGA+ equipped books without any mention of the cable, let alone an included cable! So if you can’t get your upgrade to work, the cable is probably why!

PS.: OpenBSD 5.6, you’re damn cool, especially with OpenJDK/Java now being back again! But sadly, I still need wine, so I’ll have to turn the other way again. :(